A particle model has fundamental particles but a processing model needs a fundamental process. In our computing, every processor has a command set, so an arithmetic processor might have “add one”, “subtract one” and “add zero” as core commands. Most computers have more commands but the basic idea is the same. As computing expanded to databases and networks, new commands were added, giving complex instruction set computing (CISC), until it was discovered that reduced instruction set computing (RISC) is more efficient.

The proposed command set for the quantum network is the ultimate RISC design of one command:

Set the next value in a transverse circle

A transverse circle on space permits positive-negative electromagnetic values and it always works because a circle ends where it begins. A full transverse circle completed by one node in one cycle is a null process, as equal positive-negative displacements cancel to the “nothing” of space. The displacements aren’t physical but just values set in quantum space, as complex number theory says. Light is then this fundamental quantum process spreading on the quantum network.

Figure 3.11 shows how one circular process distributed more or less can give the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The fundamental quantum process (1) is distributed between (2) quantum network nodes (3) that run it at some frequency (4) as a wave passed on at the speed of light (5). As as a circle rotation can map to any sine wave, one circular process distributed more or less can map to any frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequency of a photon depends on how it is distributed because processing distributed runs slower not less. A longer wavelength divides the same process more, so each node runs more slowly.

Imagine two people sharing a shovel where in the time one person can dig one hole, two people sharing a shovel can only dig half a hole each, and if the shovel is shared among more people, each digs even more slowly. In this analogy, the “shovel” photons share is a server providing one basic quantum process per quantum cycle.

To review, one quantum process sets a transverse circle of values at right angles to space. If that process runs in one node, the displacements cancel to give space. If it runs in more than one node, the result is light whose frequency depends on how many nodes share the process, Sharing the process over more nodes gives light with a longer wavelength and a slower frequency. The process spreads each cycle by the pass-it-on protocol, leaving the nodes behind to run it to completion. As new nodes begin, others complete the process, so the total server processing demand per photon stays the same. Since the basic quantum process is also the null processing of space, light is in effect space spread out. A photon has no rest mass because if it rested for its wave train to catch up, it would become space. Every photon in the electromagnetic spectrum is the same quantum process distributed more or less.